Old Resonances, New Practice – Tso Among the Naxi in Southwest China

Old Resonances, New Practice – Tso Among the Naxi in Southwest China

Xiuyun Zhao   Lijiangmuseum

Rotating Saving and Credit Associations or Roscas are popular in many countries, especially in those developing countries. The basic principle of Roscas is that a group of people who know and trust each other contribute a fixed amount of money at regular intervals to a fund. This fund is rotated entirely among the members of the group. The main purpose of organizing Roscas is to give financial support among the members while they have difficulties. There is also a similar association named tso which is popular among the Naxi in Southwest China. However, tso among modern Naxi, instead of its financial function, has already transformed into a kind of social organization where members could be entertained. In other words, the original financial function of tso is not as important as it was to the local people. People’s motivation to engage in tso is “just for fun” or “to be entertained” as most of local people said. In this paper, the author aims to put tso in a specific historical structure starts from Republic China to Modern China to analyse why this happened through the perspective of historical anthropology as well as the tool of gender. The paper will make a conclusion that tso’s change is resulted from the economic development after China implemented a series of political and economic reforms. Simultaneously, the author also mentions that although present tso among the Naxi has a very important function of  “being entertained”  as most participants said,  the “social capital” related to tso practice is another reason for the popularity of tso among the Naxi.

The society of tradition in the management in China has the officer people all can give play to the management domain of effect, if taxes spread out and levy and start construction the water conservancy, initiate education etc., and is called ” altogether land within certain boundaries “; Also there are at the same time the officer people respectively to develop the domain which managed oneself, and are called ” from land within certain boundaries “, ” from land within certain boundaries ” the certainly land within certain boundaries ” with among the people that this includes official again. The official includes palace activity standard and government officials’s contact standard, usual ” ceremony ” speaking from land within certain boundaries, and oneself land within certain boundaries of official is managed chiefly to show into the management to monarch and government officials. Among the people and the clan organisation the development and Hui organized body and local rules and regulations valid for all the inhabitants of a township organisation Huo Yues etc, among the people Zi the land within certain boundaries still Bao Kuos the four seasons and the eight periods and the life ceremony and the wed funerals marriage as well as the trade matter Huo Dong etc the appointment among the people becomes social custom the habit prevailing custom.

1. since the modern times, the operating space that the beautiful river Naxi nationality district society among the people kept bigger, physical strength among the people in the society management certainly the land within certain boundaries domain is positively promising, the society among the people is brisk, and the society certainly organisation ability strengthens, makes the beautiful river Naxi nationality basic level society management appears relatively has the order state.

On the other hand, since the Republic of China, the differentiation of various politics physical strength is made up frequently the politics upheavel the acute change of society, and outside political physical strength is opposite to each other to loosen to directing control of Naxi nationality district. Along with the development of Naxi nationality district society economy, small-scale peasant economy is grown ripening, the popularization of civilization education, as well as the tradition of Naxi nationality community autonomy, the oneself operating space that the society among the people can keep bigger. The society hastens in many unitizations, and the intermediate strata is expanded, and becomes the complicated society that carries on that can undertake many kinds of society functions of role stablize physical strength, and among the people managing the domain to opposite to each other to prolong oneself, arousing the society vigour, oneself strengthens the organisation ability in the society. Is being so, and is making in the society upheavel after the Republic of China of beautiful river Naxi nationality society, even in the outside society political physical strength frequently in the differentiation combination, beautiful Jiang Zhengfu under Kuomintang political power is dominant is close to in is paralysed or the corruption, and having lost the management controlling under the circumstances of the ability of society, the physical strength of dependence society among the people relies on society middle-level harmonious and keeps balance and conformity and control, Naxi nationality society relative stable ground development still and keeping with going on. The management function of many governments is taken on by the society among the people.

This chiefly shows in the development of urban and rural clan organisation, and the private or community stands like a forest, and, 賩(chong)  can be prospered, and the guild organisations such as chamber of commerce etc build, and the civilization mass organizations also enliven very much, thus in the weak district that the official controlled, is positively giving play to the function that the society managed.

2. since the modern times, Naxi nationality district society among the people enlivens, and the society is from strengthening of organisation ability, and it is that the beautiful river Naxi nationality district of modern times realizes one of important society condition of society revolution changes smoothly that the revolution organisation rises.

On the foundation that is being brisk in the society among the people, the dark owing to the national government is rotten fully to be known by people, and the popular feelings deviates, and the secret Party organizition of Chinese Party Dian, Yinnan Province west relies on just physical strength of self to intermediary and later stage in the 40’s, the good certainly organisation ability of Naxi nationality urban and rural is used, and the propaganda takes the mass organizations such as meeting and organized body etc as the open-minded revolution and to opposing the foundation struggling against. At beautiful Jiang Zujian the beautiful river Party branch of the Chinese Party, developed the peripheral organization of party ” Yunnan peasant take a stand against meeting ” and ” democratic youth alliance of China ” built like masses of the people night school, literacy class and brother’s meeting, reading meeting, elder and younger sisters’s meeting and busy season exchanges labour mass organizations such as group and reading meeting and singing team etc on this foundation, and still built the beautiful river staff and workers federation in intellectual and the peasant of beautiful river, and arouses to raise that the masses come to understand, and carries on the revolution struggle. These are all liberated and establish the good social base for the peace of beautiful river. Is that we cultivate the good citizen society today and the foundation to build the harmonious society

3. developing the beautiful river Naxi nationality district physical strength among the people tradition positively promising in the society management.

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Questo inserimento è stato pubblicato in Kunming 2009, New Horizons in Naxi Study e il tag , , , , . Metti un segnalibro su permalink. Inserisci un commento o lascia un trackback: Trackback URL.

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