Beade’s Window center: NGC6522 and NGC6528

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The obscuration of background objects by intervening dust towards the Galactic centre – Extinction – is generally very high, thus detailed studies of the central regions of our Galaxy are difficult.

There are small patches of sky along the line of sight to the Galactic centre that, by chance, suffer less extinction, and one of the largest and most famous of these is Baade’s Window which provides a relatively unobscured view of a region 4 degrees (~2,000 light years) south of the Galactic centre, with centre approximately located by NGC6522 star cluster.

Most of our knowledge of the stars in the bulge of the Milky Way is derived from studies in Baade’s Window.

It is named for astronomer Walter Baade, who first recognized its significance.

This area corresponds to one of the brightest visible patches of the Milky Way.

It is centered at a galactic longitude (l) of 1.02° and a galactic latitude (b) of -3.92°,[1] which corresponds to a right ascension of 18h 03m 32.14s and a declination of -30d 02m 06.96s, in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius.

According to Barbuy et Al. 2009, NGC6522 is possibly the oldest star cluster in the Milky Way, and Chiappini et Al., 2011 evaluated its age of about 12 billion years; cfr. “VLT-FLAMES Analysis of 8 giants in the Bulge Metal-poor Globular Cluster NGC 6522: Oldest Cluster in the Galaxy?” by B. Barbuy et al., 2009 [] , and “Imprints of fast-rotating massive stars in the Galactic Bulge” by Cristina Chiappini et al., Nature 472, pp. 454–457 (28 April 2011) []

NGC 6528 is located southwest of NGC 6522 and also presents unusually metal-richness for a globular cluster. A very similar composition with NGC 6553 suggests an origin in a similar environment; cfr.: “Chemical analysis of NGC 6528: one of the most metal-rich bulge globular cluster” by Muñoz, Al., 2018 []

In this work I separately processed LRGB integration and L masterframe by PixInSight: after normal routine (bg removing, Spectrophotometric CC, Deconvolution and denoising) I thus preferred to separate LRGB stars from starless data, thus to proceed to the final image recomposition in Photoshop with 3 main levels group (and relative fixing and adjustments) with starless on the bottom, stars blending in screen mode, and luminance as top layer blending in luminosity.

Sh2-214, 215 and unidentified sharpless Hii spot, SHO palette

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Sh2-214 and Sh2-215 very faint practically invisible Sh2 spot within Cepheus area; starless master shows both faint nebulosity and a third spot which I wasn’t able to identify.

There’s practically no literature about; cfr. and for Simbaud/Strasburg records.

Cfr. also


Starried (up) crop view and wider field from original integration.

Sarried wider field with annotations.

Sh2-157, NGC7635 in SHO palette

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SH2-157, the Lobster Claw Nebula, is an emission nebula located about 11,000 light-years away in the constellation of Cassiopeia.

According to SHO palette, red/orange and predominantly yellow regions of the nebula evinced a very large H II region while the blue-colored are predominately regions featured by the emission of light from molecular oxygen.

On the top NGC 7635 – the Bubble Nebula, and on the middle the star cluster NGC 7510.


NGC 5367 (IC 4347) and CG12 region in LRGB

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Astrobin :

NGC 5367, also catalogued as IC 4347, a Reflection Nebula in Centaurus, lighted from two bluish components of the binary system h4636 from spectral type B4 and B7.

Nebula is associated with the cometary globule CG12, extending from bottom center to the upper right for more than 1°: dicovered in 1976 on an ESO/SRC Sky Survey plate taken with the UK Schmidt telescope, CG12 is in contrast to the most other Cometary Globules, because it is far away from the galactic disk by latitude as more than 21°.


A strong IRAS point source and a highly collimated outflow indicate that star formation is still going on. The head of the globule has been observed using NIR imaging (NTT sofi), mm continuum (SEST Simba) and sub mm (APEX) and mm (SEST) spectroscopy.

The molecular material is distributed in a 10′ North-South elongated lane with two compact maxima separated by 3′. Strong C^18O (3-2), (2-1) and (1-0) emission is detected in both maxima and both have an associated compact 1.2 mm continuum source.

The Northern core, CG 12 N, is cold and is possibly still pre-stellar. A stellar source with a NIR reflection nebulosity is observed near CG 12 N.

The observed C^18O line ratios are similar to those observed in Class 0 sources.

A remarkable C^18O (3-2) hot spot is detected in the direction of the Southern core, CG 12 S. It lies at the edge of a dense cloud core detected both in high density tracers (CS (3-2), H^13CO^+ (1-0) and DCO^+(2-1)) and in the 1.2 mm continuum.

The hot spot also lies on the axis of a highly collimated bipolar molecular outflow with a driving source most probably embedded in the dense core. This is the first detection of such a compact, warm object in a low mass star forming region.

NIR imaging reveals a bright cone-like feature with a faint counter cone in the centre of CG 12 S. The total mass (> 100 M[sun]) and the linear size of the CG 12 head (~3 pc) are similar to those of other nearby low mass star forming regions.

Even though the most evolved stars in CG 12 lie already on ZAMS the cloud contains also proto-stellar sources and a pre-stellar core.


M51 region, HOO starless RGB stars

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Astrobin :

Integration of HOO starless and RGB stars masters; luminance added by Ha channel.

Narrowband Ha and Oiii subframes at 180″ -20C, gain 173 and gain 139. LRGB subframes at 60″.

Subframe list available here

Barnard 33 (IC434) SHO palette

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Telescopi O Obiettivi Di Acquisizione: William Optics Redcat 51
Camere Di Acquisizione: ZWO ASI1600MM Pro
Montature : Sky-Watcher EQM-35 ×
Filtri: Astronomik H-alpha CCD 6nm · Astronomik OIII CCD 12nm 1.25″ · Astronomik OIII CCD 6nm · Astronomik SII CCD 6nm
Accessori : ZWO ASIAIR Plus · ZWO ASIAIR Pro · ZWO EAF · ZWO EFW 8 x 1.25″ / 31mm
Software: Adobe Photoshop · Pleiades Astrophoto PixInsight
Telescopi O Obiettivi Di Guida : QHYCCD Mini Guide Scope
Camere Di Guida : ZWO ASI120MM Mini

Dettagli d’acquisizione
09 Dicembre 2021 · 11 Dicembre 2021 · 12 Dicembre 2021 · 13 Dicembre 2021 · 15 Dicembre 2021 · 16 Dicembre 2021 · 17 Dicembre 2021 · 18 Dicembre 2021 · 08 Gennaio 2022 · 09 Gennaio 2022 · 10 Gennaio 2022 · 11 Gennaio 2022 · 12 Gennaio 2022 · 13 Gennaio 2022 · 14 Gennaio 2022 · 16 Gennaio 2022 · 18 Gennaio 2022 · 22 Gennaio 2022 · 23 Gennaio 2022 · 24 Gennaio 2022 · 28 Gennaio 2022 · 29 Gennaio 2022 · 31 Gennaio 2022 · 01 Febbraio 2022 · 02 Febbraio 2022 · 05 Febbraio 2022

Astronomik H-alpha CCD 12nm 1.25″: 79×180″(3h 57′) (gain: 139.00) -20°C bin 1×1
Astronomik OIII CCD 12nm 1.25″: 62×180″(3h 6′) (gain: 139.00) -20°C bin 1×1
Astronomik SII CCD 12nm 1.25″: 77×180″(3h 51′) (gain: 139.00) -20°C bin 1×1
Integrazione: 10h 54′
Dark: 33, Flat: 33, Dark dei flat: 33
Giorno lunare medio: 12.35 giorni
Fase lunare media: 58.64%
Scala del Cielo Scuro Bortle: 6.00

M42 LRGB with Ha and Oiii integration

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Reprocessing 2022 records focused about M42 region.
In this work there’s a main core in LRGB, background removed, SPColorCalibrated, Deconvoltued and denoised is then integrated and boosted by Ha and Oiii narrowband master (Bgremoved, Deconvoluted and denoised) with Ha applied to L and R channel, Oiii to Green and Blue.
Final starless and 0.65 stars pixelmath blended and Photoshop retouches. 

IC1805 IC1848 SHO palette

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Mosaic composition of Soul and Heart Nebula in SHO palette.


Telescopi O Obiettivi Di Acquisizione William Optics Redcat 51

Camere Di Acquisizione ZWO ASI1600MM Pro

Montature Sky-Watcher EQM-35  ×

Filtri Astronomik H-alpha CCD 12nm 1.25″ · Astronomik H-alpha CCD 6nm · Astronomik OIII CCD 12nm 1.25″ · Astronomik OIII CCD 6nm · Astronomik SII CCD 12nm 1.25″ · Astronomik SII CCD 6nm

Accessori ZWO ASIAIR Pro · ZWO EAF · ZWO EFW 8 x 1.25″ / 31mm

Software Adobe Photoshop · Pleiades Astrophoto PixInsight

Telescopi O Obiettivi Di Guida QHYCCD Mini Guide Scope  ×

Camere Di GuidaZWO ASI120MM Mini

Dettagli d’acquisizione

Date: 09 Settembre 2021 ·  12 Settembre 2021 ·  28 Ottobre 2021 ·  01 Novembre 2021


Astronomik H-alpha CCD 12nm 1.25″: 324×180″(16h 12′) (gain: 139.00) -20°C bin 1×1
Astronomik OIII CCD 12nm 1.25″: 481×180″(24h 3′) (gain: 139.00) -20°C bin 1×1
Astronomik SII CCD 12nm 1.25″: 309×180″(15h 27′) (gain: 139.00) -20°C bin 1×1

Integrazione: 55h 42′ Dark:33 Flat:33 Dark dei flat:33

Giorno lunare medio:14.04 giorni

Fase lunare media: 27.69%

Scala del Cielo Scuro Bortle: 6.00

Luoghi: Home (balcony), Livorno, Livorno, Italia; Livorno, Toscana, Italia

Wolf Rayet 40 and RCW58

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I found this work not so easy to be done, but I really stoked into.
Mostly made in PixInSight I played and LRGB and HOO separated integration, background removing, Spectrophotometric color calibration.
I then used Ha to enhace both L and R channel, while Oiii to integrate G and B channel.
Extracting starless / stars masters,
then is adding stars from LRGB color calibrated master into HaL HaR OiiiG OiiiB nebula master.
This is a very interesting subject.
The central star in this image is WR 40 which is located toward the constellation of Carina.
WR stands for Wolf Rayet, in honor of French astronomers Charles Wolf and Georges Rayet.
This Wolf Rayet star is thus about 100 times as massive as our, lives fast and dies young.
It is going quickly to exhaust its core hydrogen supply, moves on to fusing heavier core elements, and expands while ejecting it outer layers via high stellar winds at a speed of nearly 100 kilometers per second, and these outer layers have become the expanding oval-shaped nebula RCW 58.

Telescope CH-1-CMOS Planewave CDK24

Camera QHY 600M

Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile

Date of observation 27/04/2023

Filters L R G B H O

Processing in PixInSight, Photoshop
CreditsCredits: Telescoplive


Date:27 Aprile 2023 ·  28 Aprile 2023Pose:

Astrodon Gen2 E-Series Tru-Balance Blue 50×50 mm: 5×240″(20′)
Astrodon Gen2 E-Series Tru-Balance Green 50×50 mm: 8×240″(32′)
Astrodon Gen2 E-Series Tru-Balance Lum 50×50 mm: 8×240″(32′)
Astrodon Gen2 E-Series Tru-Balance Red 50×50 mm: 8×240″(32′)
Astrodon H-alpha 3nm 50×50 mm: 14×300″(1h 10′)
Astrodon OIII 3nm 50×50 mm: 11×300″(55′)

Integrazione: 4h 1′

Giorno lunare medio: 7.48 giorni

Fase lunare media:51.02%

NGC6188 Rim Nebula

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SHO integration from Telescopelive CHI-1 CCD – Planewave CDK24 610/3962, Camera Proline FLI PL16083.

Starless and annotated version by PixInSight.

Framelist available here:

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