M16 (NGC 6611) and the Pillars of Creation

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M16 (NGC 6611) Eagle Nebula, or Star Queen Nebula, was discovered in 1745 by the Swiss astronome Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux while in 1745 and 1746, De Chéseaux compiled a list of 21 nebulous objects, of which he had originally discovered 8 objects: IC 4665, NGC 6633, M16, M25, M35 (this one might have seen before by John Bevis in England), M71, M4, and M17. Moreover, he independently re-discovered M6, NGC 6231 and M22 (No. 17). 

De Chéseaux sent this list to his grandfather, Reaumur, in Paris, and it was read by Reaumur at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences on August 6, 1746 and mentioned by Jean Maraldi in 1746 (Maraldi 1751), by Le Gentil in 1759 (Le Gentil 1765), but then stayed unpublished and more or less forgotten until Guillaume Bigourdan recovered and published it within a larger paper in 1884 (Bigourdan 1892).

For Cheseaux observation cfr.: http://www.messier.seds.org/xtra/similar/deches.html [18/07/2023]

M16 was independently rediscovered, and nebula IC 4703 discovered, by Charles Messier on June 3, 1764.

This nebula lies in the Sagittarius Arm of the Milky Way and became famous as the “Pillars of Creation” imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. 

The nebula contains several active star-forming gas and dust regions, and is part of a diffuse emission nebula H II region, which is catalogued as IC 4703. 

This region of active current star formation is about 5700 light-years distant. 

According to NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) [ https://esahubble.org/images/heic0506b/ ] among peculiarities there’s the 90 trillion kilometers long spire of gas that can be seen coming off the nebula in the northeastern part appearing like a winged fairy-tale creature poised on a pedestal, this object is actually a billowing tower of cold gas and dust rising from a stellar nursery called the Eagle Nebula. 

The name “Pillars of Creation” explains the gas and dust disposed in pillars clouds which are in the process of creating new stars, while also being eroded by the light from nearby stars that have recently formed, and it was given after the Hubble picture taken on April 1, 1995.

Astronomers responsible for the photo were Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen from Arizona State University. 

According to DeVorkin and Smith, 2015 [Devorkin, David H.; Smith, Robert W., 2015 “The Hubble Cosmos: 25 Years of New Vistas in Space.” National Geographic Society: 67 this name is based on a phrase used by Charles Spurgeon in his 1857 sermon “The Condescension of Christ”: by calling the Hubble’s spectacular image of the Eagle Nebula the Pillars of Creation, NASA scientists were tapping a rich symbolic tradition with centuries of meaning, bringing it into the modern age. 

As much as we associate pillars with the classical temples of Greece and Rome, the concept of the pillars of creation – the very foundations that hold up the world and all that is in it – reverberates significantly in the Christian tradition. When William Jennings Bryan published The World’s Famous Orations in 1906, he included an 1857 sermon by London pastor Charles Haddon Spurgeon titled “The Condescension of Christ”. In it, Spurgeon uses the phrase to convey not only the physical world but also the force that keeps it all together, emanating from the divine: “And now wonder, ye angels,” Spurgeon says of the birth of Christ, “the Infinite has become an infant; he, upon whose shoulders the universe doth hang, hangs at his mother’s breast; He who created all things, and bears up the pillars of creation, hath now become so weak, that He must be carried by a woman!”

According to Bally et. Al., the pillars are composed of cool molecular hydrogen and dust that are being eroded by photoevaporation from the ultraviolet light of relatively close and hot stars. The leftmost pillar is about four light years in length. The finger-like protrusions at the top of the clouds are larger than the Solar System, and are made visible by the shadows of evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs), which shield the gas behind them from intense UV flux.[10] EGGs are themselves incubators of new stars.

The stars then emerge from the EGGs, which then are evaporated.

Cfr.: Bally, J.; Morse, J.; Reipurth, B. (1996). “The Birth of Stars: Herbig-Haro Jets, Accretion and Proto-Planetary Disks”. In Benvenuti, Piero; Macchetto, F.D.; Schreier, Ethan J. (eds.). Science with the Hubble Space Telescope – II. Proceedings of a workshop held in Paris, France, December 4–8, 1995. Space Telescope Science Institute. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996swhs.conf..491B/abstract [18/07/2023]

M20 (NGC 6514) in SHO

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Astrobin: https://www.astrobin.com/8lkg32/

Dettagli d’acquisizione

Date: 16 Giugno 2023

Astrodon H-alpha 3nm 50×50 mm: 6×300″(30′)
Astrodon OIII 3nm 50×50 mm: 4×300″(20′)
Astrodon SII 3nm 50×50 mm: 6×300″(30′)

Integrazione: 1h 20′, giorno lunare medio: 27.92 giorni, fase lunare media: 2.89%

Telescopi O Obiettivi Di Acquisizione: Planewave CDK24

Camere Di Acquisizione: QHYCCD QHY600 Pro M  ×

Montature: Mathis Instruments MI-1000/1250

Filtri: Astrodon H-alpha 3nm 50×50 mm · Astrodon OIII 3nm 50×50 mm · Astrodon SII 3nm 50×50 mm

Software: Adobe Photoshop · Pleiades Astrophoto PixInsight

Annotations by PixInSight

Markarian’s chain

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Beade’s Window center: NGC6522 and NGC6528

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The obscuration of background objects by intervening dust towards the Galactic centre – Extinction – is generally very high, thus detailed studies of the central regions of our Galaxy are difficult.

There are small patches of sky along the line of sight to the Galactic centre that, by chance, suffer less extinction, and one of the largest and most famous of these is Baade’s Window which provides a relatively unobscured view of a region 4 degrees (~2,000 light years) south of the Galactic centre, with centre approximately located by NGC6522 star cluster.

Most of our knowledge of the stars in the bulge of the Milky Way is derived from studies in Baade’s Window.

It is named for astronomer Walter Baade, who first recognized its significance.

This area corresponds to one of the brightest visible patches of the Milky Way.

It is centered at a galactic longitude (l) of 1.02° and a galactic latitude (b) of -3.92°,[1] which corresponds to a right ascension of 18h 03m 32.14s and a declination of -30d 02m 06.96s, in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius.

According to Barbuy et Al. 2009, NGC6522 is possibly the oldest star cluster in the Milky Way, and Chiappini et Al., 2011 evaluated its age of about 12 billion years; cfr. “VLT-FLAMES Analysis of 8 giants in the Bulge Metal-poor Globular Cluster NGC 6522: Oldest Cluster in the Galaxy?” by B. Barbuy et al., 2009 [https://arxiv.org/abs/0908.3603] , and “Imprints of fast-rotating massive stars in the Galactic Bulge” by Cristina Chiappini et al., Nature 472, pp. 454–457 (28 April 2011) [https://www.nature.com/articles/nature10000]

NGC 6528 is located southwest of NGC 6522 and also presents unusually metal-richness for a globular cluster. A very similar composition with NGC 6553 suggests an origin in a similar environment; cfr.: “Chemical analysis of NGC 6528: one of the most metal-rich bulge globular cluster” by Muñoz, C.et Al., 2018 [https://arxiv.org/abs/1809.04164]

In this work I separately processed LRGB integration and L masterframe by PixInSight: after normal routine (bg removing, Spectrophotometric CC, Deconvolution and denoising) I thus preferred to separate LRGB stars from starless data, thus to proceed to the final image recomposition in Photoshop with 3 main levels group (and relative fixing and adjustments) with starless on the bottom, stars blending in screen mode, and luminance as top layer blending in luminosity.

NGC 5367 (IC 4347) and CG12 region in LRGB

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Astrobin : https://www.astrobin.com/uggz1f/B/

NGC 5367, also catalogued as IC 4347, a Reflection Nebula in Centaurus, lighted from two bluish components of the binary system h4636 from spectral type B4 and B7.

Nebula is associated with the cometary globule CG12, extending from bottom center to the upper right for more than 1°: dicovered in 1976 on an ESO/SRC Sky Survey plate taken with the UK Schmidt telescope, CG12 is in contrast to the most other Cometary Globules, because it is far away from the galactic disk by latitude as more than 21°.

Cfr.: https://www.irida-observatory.org/Namibia-Tivoli/NGC5367/NGC5367.htm

A strong IRAS point source and a highly collimated outflow indicate that star formation is still going on. The head of the globule has been observed using NIR imaging (NTT sofi), mm continuum (SEST Simba) and sub mm (APEX) and mm (SEST) spectroscopy.

The molecular material is distributed in a 10′ North-South elongated lane with two compact maxima separated by 3′. Strong C^18O (3-2), (2-1) and (1-0) emission is detected in both maxima and both have an associated compact 1.2 mm continuum source.

The Northern core, CG 12 N, is cold and is possibly still pre-stellar. A stellar source with a NIR reflection nebulosity is observed near CG 12 N.

The observed C^18O line ratios are similar to those observed in Class 0 sources.

A remarkable C^18O (3-2) hot spot is detected in the direction of the Southern core, CG 12 S. It lies at the edge of a dense cloud core detected both in high density tracers (CS (3-2), H^13CO^+ (1-0) and DCO^+(2-1)) and in the 1.2 mm continuum.

The hot spot also lies on the axis of a highly collimated bipolar molecular outflow with a driving source most probably embedded in the dense core. This is the first detection of such a compact, warm object in a low mass star forming region.

NIR imaging reveals a bright cone-like feature with a faint counter cone in the centre of CG 12 S. The total mass (> 100 M[sun]) and the linear size of the CG 12 head (~3 pc) are similar to those of other nearby low mass star forming regions.

Even though the most evolved stars in CG 12 lie already on ZAMS the cloud contains also proto-stellar sources and a pre-stellar core.

Cfr.: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IAUS..237..420H/abstract

Wolf Rayet 40 and RCW58

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I found this work not so easy to be done, but I really stoked into.
Mostly made in PixInSight I played and LRGB and HOO separated integration, background removing, Spectrophotometric color calibration.
I then used Ha to enhace both L and R channel, while Oiii to integrate G and B channel.
Extracting starless / stars masters,
then is adding stars from LRGB color calibrated master into HaL HaR OiiiG OiiiB nebula master.
This is a very interesting subject.
The central star in this image is WR 40 which is located toward the constellation of Carina.
WR stands for Wolf Rayet, in honor of French astronomers Charles Wolf and Georges Rayet.
This Wolf Rayet star is thus about 100 times as massive as our, lives fast and dies young.
It is going quickly to exhaust its core hydrogen supply, moves on to fusing heavier core elements, and expands while ejecting it outer layers via high stellar winds at a speed of nearly 100 kilometers per second, and these outer layers have become the expanding oval-shaped nebula RCW 58.
Cfr. https://science.nasa.gov/stellar-wind-shaped-nebula-rcw-58

Telescope CH-1-CMOS Planewave CDK24

Camera QHY 600M

Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile

Date of observation 27/04/2023

Filters L R G B H O

Processing in PixInSight, Photoshop
CreditsCredits: Telescoplive

Astrobin: https://www.astrobin.com/cgrplj/

Date:27 Aprile 2023 ·  28 Aprile 2023Pose:

Astrodon Gen2 E-Series Tru-Balance Blue 50×50 mm: 5×240″(20′)
Astrodon Gen2 E-Series Tru-Balance Green 50×50 mm: 8×240″(32′)
Astrodon Gen2 E-Series Tru-Balance Lum 50×50 mm: 8×240″(32′)
Astrodon Gen2 E-Series Tru-Balance Red 50×50 mm: 8×240″(32′)
Astrodon H-alpha 3nm 50×50 mm: 14×300″(1h 10′)
Astrodon OIII 3nm 50×50 mm: 11×300″(55′)

Integrazione: 4h 1′

Giorno lunare medio: 7.48 giorni

Fase lunare media:51.02%

NGC6188 Rim Nebula

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SHO integration from Telescopelive CHI-1 CCD – Planewave CDK24 610/3962, Camera Proline FLI PL16083.

Starless and annotated version by PixInSight.

Framelist available here:

NGC3324 in SHO (Hubble) palette

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NGC3324 in SHO palette, from El Sauce Observatory, Chile – Planewave CDK24 610/3962, Proline 9000

.fit BIN1 and BIN2 calibrated frames from Telescopelive, from 29/04/2020 to 17/06/2022

Barnard 33 and half Barnard’s Ori loop

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Horsehead, M42 Orion nebula region and half Orion loop

NGC2359 Thor’s Helmet, SHO Palette – Telescopelive

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NGC2359 Thor’s Helmet in SHO Palette. RAW .fits calibrated file from Telescopelive



TelescopeLive: https://telescope.live/gallery/ngc2359-thors-helmet-4

Annotation by PixInSight

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